Much like diesters, the resulting properties will depend on these two constituent types. Polyalkylene glycol (PAG) is produced through a reaction involving ethylene or propylene oxides and alcohol to form various polymers. Emulsified moisture has a direct effect in the compressibility of oil. Group II base oils are produced using hydrogen gas in a process called hydrogenation or hydrotreating. Photos: The USCG in the Persian Gulf War and the Origins of the PSU, Royal Navy Boosts Hurricane Relief Efforts in Honduras. Color: >+30 Saybolt Color units - measured via ASTM D 156. Hydraulic Oil vs Mineral Oil – Everything You Should Know. Group III base oils are made in much the same way as Group II mineral oils, except the hydrogenation process is coupled with high temperatures and high pressures. The 20th century saw a number of improvements in the refining process used for mineral oils along with the introduction of a variety of synthetics. Polyolester is made through a reaction of monobasic acid with a polyhydric alcohol. Even though naphthenic oil is mineral-based, it is considered a Group V oil because it does not satisfy the API’s qualifications for Group I, II and III. The chart on page 33 shows a comparison of the most essential properties for each base oil. When you are choosing a base oil, there will be tradeoffs in the lubricant properties required for the application. To offset these liabilities, DNV GL advises applying a viscosity factor of 0.75 to non-mineral oils in order to bring the safety margins back in line. Like dissolved water, emulsified moisture is ubiquitous within the oil sample and can also cause rusting along metal parts leading to particulates in the oil. Machinery Lubrication. Machinery Lubrication. It is because oil have less density than water and hence water sinks down. Synthetics are man-made through a synthesizing process and come in a number of formulations with unique properties for their intended purpose. 9, Issue 6. Of course, as the oil becomes more refined, some key weaknesses also occur, which can affect additive solubility and biodegradability. Monitor Water-In-Oil with the Visual Crackle Test. Spanish power utility Endesa is planning to convert a terminal at the Port of Algeciras into a bunkering pier for LNG-fueled vessels. All lubricants contain a base oil. The result is a structure that looks very much like the purest form of the mineral oils described in Group III. Port of San Diego Moves Ahead With Solar Microgrid Project, Endesa to Convert Algeciras Coal Terminal into LNG Bunkering Pier, British Ports are Scrambling as Brexit Deadline Looms Five Weeks Away, MOL Tests First Technology to Capture Microplastics in Ballast Water, 31 Indicted in Connection With U.S. Coast Guard Exam-Fixing Scheme, PortMiami Sets Cargo Record While Preparing for Return of Cruising, U.S. Dissolved water molecules will actively seek other polar molecules which may include additives such as detergents, antioxidants (amines or phenols), friction modifiers, and anti-wear additives (such zinc phosphates). However, these synthetic lubricants can also have deficiencies when it comes to additive solubility, lubricity, seal shrinkage and film strength. In fact, it is common for diesters and polyolesters to be mixed with PAOs during additive blending to help accept more significant additive packages. Although there are different definitions use to describe the acidification of oil over time (pH or Total Acid Number), there is one variable that exacerbates the issue and that is emulsified water. A second phase of investment will create storage for about 4,000 cubic meters of LNG. “The overall conclusion we can draw from the JDP Phase 1 results is that (new and non-degraded) EALs provide safety margins equivalent to those of mineral oils in most operating conditions,” said Øystein Åsheim Alnes, Principal Engineer at DNV GL Group Technology and Research, in  a statement announcing the results.