[159] In it, he asserted the Schopenhauerian judgment that music is a primary expression of the essence of everything. On 13 May, in Lucerne, when Nietzsche was alone with Salomé, he earnestly proposed marriage to her again, which she rejected. All Rights Reserved. His health improved and he spent the summer in high spirits. it in the theory of the urge to dominate and master. Nietzsche believed that European man was standing at a critical turning Mussolini,[314][315] Charles de Gaulle[316] and Huey P. Newton[317] read Nietzsche. Though few in the West realize it, Nietzsche’s influence has only continued to grow and expand since his rise to popularity after his death. [105] In January 1889, they proceeded with the planned release of Twilight of the Idols, by that time already printed and bound. [112][113] Leonard Sax suggested the slow growth of a right-sided retro-orbital meningioma as an explanation of Nietzsche's dementia;[114] Orth and Trimble postulated frontotemporal dementia[115] while other researchers have proposed a hereditary stroke disorder called CADASIL. [103], On 6 January 1889, Burckhardt showed the letter he had received from Nietzsche to Overbeck. "[iii], Deussen cited the episode of Cologne's brothel in February 1865 as instrumental to understand the philosopher's way of thinking, mostly about women. The overman does not follow the morality of common people since that favors mediocrity but rises above the notion of good and evil and above the "herd". His power Andreas-Salomé, Lou.

[172][173][174] Nietzsche rejected the idea of objective reality, arguing that knowledge is contingent and conditional, relative to various fluid perspectives or interests.

[81] Gast was one of the very few friends Nietzsche allowed to criticize him. Nietzsche recognized this and maintained his solitude, though he often complained. [191][192] He called himself an "immoralist" and harshly criticized the prominent moral philosophies of his day: Christianity, Kantianism, and utilitarianism. Nietzsche's father died from a brain ailment in 1849; Ludwig Joseph died six months later at age two. In responding most enthusiastically to Also Sprach Zarathustra ('Thus Spoke Zarathustra'), Gast did feel it necessary to point out that what were described as "superfluous" people were in fact quite necessary. ", Nietzsche, Friedrich.

Value emerges from the contrast between good and evil: good being associated with other-worldliness, charity, piety, restraint, meekness, and submission; while evil is worldly, cruel, selfish, wealthy, and aggressive. Nietzsche would ultimately argue the impossibility of an evolutionary explanation of the human aesthetic sense. society. In Also Sprach Zarathustra, Nietzsche proclaimed that a table of values hangs above every great person. In a 29 March 1887 letter to Theodor Fritsch, Nietzsche mocked anti-Semites, Fritsch, Eugen Dühring, Wagner, Ebrard, Wahrmund, and the leading advocate of pan-Germanism, Paul de Lagarde, who would become, along with Wagner and Houston Chamberlain, the main official influences of Nazism. He believed the press and mass culture led to conformity, brought about mediocrity, and the lack of intellectual progress was leading to the decline of the human species. She studied Nietzsche's works and, piece by piece, took control of their publication. Among people deceased in 1900, Friedrich Nietzsche ranks 1. The composer (writer of music) Richard Wagner (1813–1883) had according to the circumstances of individual perspectives. Nietzsche has influenced philosophers such as Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre,[321] Oswald Spengler,[322] George Grant,[323] Emil Cioran,[324] Albert Camus, Ayn Rand,[325] Jacques Derrida,[citation needed] Leo Strauss,[326] Max Scheler, Michel Foucault and Bernard Williams. [248] In 1867 Nietzsche wrote in a letter that he was trying to improve his German style of writing with the help of Lessing, Lichtenberg and Schopenhauer. [236], A trained philologist, Nietzsche had a thorough knowledge of Greek philosophy. Bobrowicz, Lipsk 1839–1845: herb Radwan (t. 8 s. 27-29)", "Nietzsche and Lou Andreas-Salomé: Chronicle of a Relationship 1882", "Historicizing Nietzsche? Living off his pension from Basel and aid from friends, Nietzsche traveled frequently to find climates more conducive to his health and lived until 1889 as an independent author in different cities. It attacks the idea

Because his father had worked for the state (as a pastor) the now-fatherless Nietzsche was offered a scholarship to study at the internationally recognized Schulpforta (the claim that Nietzsche was admitted on the strength of his academic competence has been debunked: his grades were not near the top of the class). "[310], Nietzsche's growing prominence suffered a severe setback when his works became closely associated with Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany. [48] The family then moved to Naumburg, where they lived with Nietzsche's maternal grandmother and his father's two unmarried sisters. [150], Other scholars have argued that Köhler's sexuality-based interpretation is not helpful in understanding Nietzsche's philosophy. [80] He subsequently transcribed and proofread the galleys for almost all of Nietzsche's work. And man shall be that to overman: a laughing stock or painful embarrassment. The two met Nietzsche in Rome in April 1882, and Nietzsche is believed to have instantly fallen in love with Salomé, as Rée had done. was distressing, which he often referred to in his later writings. have suggested that the eternal return is related to the overman, since willing the eternal return of the same is a necessary step if the overman is to create new values untainted by the spirit of gravity or asceticism. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), German Philosopher. [135] Oehler claims that Nietzsche came from a long line of German Lutheran clergymen on both sides of his family, and modern scholars regard the claim of Nietzsche's Polish ancestry as "pure invention.

Die Umstellung vom Land auf die Stadt bereitete Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche Schwierigkeiten.

A laughing stock or painful embarrassment. When he regained consciousness, his sanity was gone. Before him are Confucius, Immanuel Kant, René Descartes, Pythagoras, Avicenna, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Amidst renewed bouts of illness, living in near-isolation after a falling out with his mother and sister regarding Salomé, Nietzsche fled to Rapallo, where he wrote the first part of Also Sprach Zarathustra in only ten days. desired. ". Nietzsche began his mandatory military service in 1867. However, Nietzsche referred to Kant as a "moral fanatic", Plato as "boring", Mill as a "blockhead", and of Spinoza, he said: "How much of personal timidity and vulnerability does this masquerade of a sickly recluse betray?

Nietzsche's early publications in classical philology (study of "A thousand goals have there been so far", says Zarathustra, "for there are a thousand peoples. | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | Sitemap.

By that time Nietzsche appeared fully in the grip of a serious mental illness,[104] and his mother Franziska decided to transfer him to a clinic in Jena under the direction of Otto Binswanger. Nietzsche then entered

1988. Paradoxes and Lessons of a Hard Case", "Zarathustra's Secret.

Overbeck traveled to Turin and brought Nietzsche to a psychiatric clinic in Basel. Weber, for example, relied on Nietzsche's perspectivism by maintaining that objectivity is still possible—but only after a particular perspective, value, or end has been established. [199], Nietzsche felt that modern antisemitism was "despicable" and contrary to European ideals. Further, he declared that The Nietzsche manuscripts were eventually moved to the Goethe and Schiller Archive in Weimar. He grew up in humble beginnings and was a decent student in school. He also contracted diphtheria and dysentery.